当你制作人物动画的时候需要考虑到的事情。。。Lisa Mullins

发表于2015-08-21
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(为了让更多读者更好理解文章,中英文分段列出以供参照,以免翻译错漏处误导读者,绝非偷懒)

1. Animate from the inside out….not the outside in.
a. The torso, how the pelvis and spine are working together to move your body.
b. Define the relationship of feet to pelvis and torso
i. Where is the weight?
ii. Is there balance?
c. Arms, necks, fingers and toes come last
1。从内至外做动画。。。,而不是由外而内。
a。躯干,骨盆和脊柱是怎样协同工作来移动你的身体的。
b。定义脚与骨盆脊柱的关系。
i。重量落在哪里?
ii。它是否平衡?
c。手臂,脖子,手指和脚趾最后弄。

2. Don’t get overwhelmed by all the limbs and appendages….it’s a bouncing ball.

a. Arcs………everything organic moves in curves, robots move in straight lines.
i. Pick a point on the body, or a locator and track it’s motion with an expo marker. See what shape arc you are making.
b. Timing……what part starts moving first and what is the last thing to get there?
i. Give the eye enough time to see a pose, or an action. If you have two
Objects touching one another- 1 frame is not enough time to see it.
ii. Pauses are as important as the action. The contrast between them is what
Makes each work
iii. Rhythm. Bad pop music is repetitive and everything happens on the beat.
Jazz music has melody but also has off-beats and departures.
c. Spacing……determines your slow-ins and slow-outs and your timing
i. Favor a pose
ii. How quickly do you want it to move from pose A to pose B
iii. Cartoony animation vs. Realistic animation. A lot is determined byboth timing and spacing. Snappy vs. flowing.
2。不要被四肢和附属的肢体迷惑了双眼。。。,那只是一个跳跃的球罢了。
a。弧线。。。任何有机的东西的运动都呈弧线,机器人以直线运动。
i。选取身上的一个点,或者一个locator,然后标记出它的轨迹,看看你做出了什么形状的弧线。
b。Timing。。。哪部分先动,哪些后到达那个地方呢?
i。给眼睛足够的时间来看清楚pose,或者一个动作。如果你让两个物体互相接触----1帧不足以看清楚。
ii。暂停与动作一样重要。它们之间产生的对比让它俩每个都管用。
iii。节奏。糟糕的流行音乐是这样的代表,每样东西都发生在节拍上。
爵士乐有悦耳的音调,但是也有弱拍和departures。
c。Spacing。。。决定了你的slow-in和slow-out还有你的timing
i。选定一个
pose
ii。你想要它从poseA多快运动到
poseB
iii。卡通动画VS写实动画。很大程度上是又彼此的timing和spacing决定。从而产生干脆VS流畅。

3. Overlap and Follow-through. Flow from one pose to the next.
a. Each part of an arm, leg or torso doesn’t move at the same time.
b. Decide where the energy or need for the movement is coming from –
and move that part first. Follow the this flow of energy as it travels through the body.
c. Everything shouldn’t come to a dead stop. Except in extreme cartoony cases, complete
stillness is a killer.
d. Flow. One part of the body starts to move into the next pose as another part is still
finishing it’s motion from the last pose.

3
。Overlap和Follow-through。从一个pose流动到下一个。
a。胳膊,腿,或躯干的每个部分不是在同一时刻运动的。
b。决定好运动的能量或者需求是从哪里来的 ---- 那么先移动那个部分。随着能量流在整个身体中传播。
c。每样东西都不应该进入僵死的停止状态。除非在极度卡通的例子里,否则完全的静止就是个杀手。
d。流动。身体的一部分开始移动要进入下一个pose了,而另一部分还正要结束从上一个pose过来的运动。
4。重量与质感
a。在人的身体中,重心的大部分时候是分布在在骨盆和躯干的下部。从每个单一的pose,到整个动画中,
你都要从始至终的跟踪那个重心。两只脚和躯干下部有着持续不断的关系。如果身体比较低的部分不平衡了 ----
就一定要用其他的部分找回平衡。可以使手臂,另一条腿,躯干上部或者一个物体或道具。
b。任何你接触和移动的东西包括你自己,或者你的角色都有它自己的重量。你要决定好每个东西有多重。然后通过它对
身体的影响程度给我们展示它有多重。我是在抱一个枕头,还是一个保险柜?当我分别抱这两样东西的时候,手臂看起来
会有什么不同?我选择怎样抱它,会展示出它的重量,而且我身体的其余部分受到它的影响的程度也会展示出它的重量。
4. Weight and Texture
a. Within the human body, the majority of the weight lies in the pelvis and lower
torso area. On every single pose, and throughout animation you must keep
track of that weight. There is a constant relationship between the 2 feet and
that lower torso area. If the lower part of the body is off balance – it must
counterbalance using the rest of the weight it’s got. This could be arms, other
legs, the upper torso or an object or prop.
b. Everything you touch or move including yourself or your character has it’s
own weight. Decide how much each thing weighs. Show us how much
by how it affects the body. Am I holding a pillow, or am I holding a safe?
What does my arm look like when holding each? How I choose to hold it will
show weight and how much the rest of my body is affected by it will show weight.

c。绷紧或努力。有时候你需要加入一些看起来杂乱的帧,来展示绷紧,使劲,或努力。如果你
正在试着移动某个重的东西 ---- 它不会马上“就范”的。你的手臂可能会在物体之前先“就范”的。
试着在地毯上拉动一个东西 ---- 它会把地毯刮起毛的。。。这和在水泥地上 ---- 或者冰面
或类似的什么上面拉动东西会有很大的区别。当接触到其他物体时,物体会遇到摩擦,慢下来
或者变得很使劲的样子。
d。每样你接触,移动或者行走的东西都是由不同的材料组成的。当你做动画时,脑子里要记住这些。
它是柔软的草地,栏杆是金属还是木头?物体会给一个轻微的力就“就范”吗,或者它是坚硬的
大理石?记住要从视觉上展示出来。。。毕竟,我们自己不能去触摸它们啊。

c. Tension or Effort. Sometimes you have to put in some random looking frames
to show tension, struggle, or effort. If you are trying to move something heavy- it
is not going to “give” right away. Your arms may “give” before the object does.
Try dragging something along a carpet- it will catch on the rug fibers…this is
quite different than dragging something along a cement floor- or ice for that
Matter. Things get rub, slow down or get stuck when in contact with other things.
d. Everything you touch, move or walk is made up of different material. Keep
this in mind when animating. Is it soft grass, is the handrail metal or wood,
will the object “give” slightly, or is it solid marble. Remember to show this
visually…after all- we can’t go in there an touch it ourselves.

其他你可以在你的动画中做的工序。。。。。。
1。臀部。。。。。。臀部是用来帮助“从事”躯干下部,骨盆部分的重心的营造的。
给骨盆的主要部分做动画时,直接用根控制器。把臀部的控制器留到另一个工序中。
它是帮助你的腿来承担重量的。它会在重心沿着一条腿移动之后很快用到 ---- 而且它会发生
那么几帧。如果你是一个巨型恐龙 ---- 这个臀部的转换会花更长的时间 ---- 更大的骨骼
为了达到同样的效果,不得不旋转的更多。
Other Passes You Can Do On Your Animation……………
1. Hips…………. The hip is there to help “take up” the weight of the lower torso, pelvis area.
Animate the majority of the pelvis direction with the root. Save the hip control
For another pass. It is there to help your leg take the weight. It will go into action
shortly after the weight has moved over one leg – and it will happen in a matter of
a couple of frames. If you were a giant dinosaur- this hip shift would take longer
to happen – bigger bones have to rotate more to get the same effect.

2。锁骨或者肩膀。。。与臀部旋转的功能很相似。尤其是如果手是被搁在某处或者被倚靠着的时候。
手臂会试着尽可能多的承担重量 ---- 然后肩胛骨会被迫承担其余的重量。
3。呼吸。。。想想当你的角色正要喘一口气。
a。一个呼吸可以在预备动作时发生。当游泳时,它应该发生在你跳入水中开始水下游泳之前。
可能你在扎猛子之前会深吸一大口气。
瑜珈完全基于呼吸和运动。在一个姿势之前吸入空气,然后在下个姿势中呼出去。
b。一个呼吸能决定角色的情绪或者思维状态。紧张的人呼吸的很快,很浅。刚跑步完的人
则上不来气,因为他理应不能马上恢复正常的呼吸。睡觉的人可能打鼾,而且拉锯一样节奏很规律。
或者他们可能呼吸暂停一下,然后突然猛烈的喘气。如果有人吓你,你是吸入空气,还是吐出?
c。呼吸不能只是用一个骨头的旋转来发生。没有呼吸的控制。整个的脊椎和肩膀,头部和颈部在
呼吸过程中都参与进来。如果是一个上气不接下气的跑步的人 ---- 那可能就是整个身体参与。
再说一次 ---- 你的timing和overlap要按照呼吸的过程来。呼吸在腹部时,横隔膜上升 ----
进入肺部,胸廓抬起 ---- 抬起肩膀和颈部时就进入了鼻子和嘴了。
2. Clavicles or Shoulders…….. are very similar in function to the hip rotation. Particularly
If the hand is being used to rest on or leaned on. The arm will try to take up as
much weight as possible- then the scapula be forced to take up the rest.
3. Breathing …. Think about when your character is going to take a breath.
a. A breath can happen during an anticipation. When swimming it literally happens before you dive in and swim
underwater. Perhaps you take a big gulp before a golf swing.
Yoga is based entirely on breath and motion. Pulling in the air before a posture and
pushing it out through the next posture.
b. A breath can determine the character’s mood or state of mind. Nervous people
breathe fast, shallow breaths. Someone who has just run may be out of breath
to the point where they literally can’t get it back to normal breathing. Someone
who is asleep may snore or “saw logs” in a regular rhythm. Or they may have
sleep apnea which can cause them to gasp violently all of a sudden. Have someone
scare you- did you suck in air- or blow it out?

c. Breathing doesn’t just happen with one bone rotation. There is no breath control.
The entire spine and shoulders, head and neck are involved in breathing. If it
is the out of breath runner- than maybe the whole body. Again- here is your timing
and overlap following the breath in the abdomen, up through the diaphragm, into
the lungs, up in the chest- up the shoulders and neck into the nasal or mouth.
人体是一个巨大的,错综复杂的机器,由很多工作部件组成,它们协同工作,互相影响。。。。。。
是的,你必须动画所有这些!抱怨?对上帝去说吧。
Lisa Mullins 2002

The Human Body is a large, intricate, complex machine made up of many working parts that all work together
and affect one another….
Yes! You must animate all of them! Complaints? Talk to the God. Lisa Mullins 2002

--------注明来自凯鲁动画师网--------

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